Arctic Blue 
Plebejus glandon rustica

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Ovum on Androsace septentrionalis, oviposited 3 August 2008
 Murdock Mountain, Summit County, Utah

First instar eclosed on 9 August 2008.  This larva died.
first instar

Photo taken 10 August 2009 of first instar that emerged 9th of August
This larva is  "mining" or  feeding in between the  top layer and bottom layer of the leaf
Just the round head and a trail of frass are visible
first instar

First instar  on  the top surface of a leaf 15th of August 2009

Just molted to Second Instar - 10:54:34 P.M.  15 August 2009 2nd I.S.

Molted to Third instar - 23 August 2009

Third instar resting on the leaf surface, 26 August 2009
third instar

Molted to Fourth Instar 28 September2009
Photo of dorsal view on 31 August 2009
4th instar

Fourth Instar, lateral  view on 31 August 2009
4th instar

Number two larva walked off the plant,
stopped feeding and prepared  to pupate on the 5th of September

Number six  Prepupa to Pupa on  28 September 2009
10:23 A.M. 28 September 2009 - Pre-Pupa set to pupate 5:47 A.M. 28 September 2009 - Set to pupate
Larva about to pupate 10:23 A.M., 28 September 09 prepupa at 5:47 P.M. 28 September 2009

7:03 P.M. 28 September 09 - Pupa losing old skin

7:03 P.M. 28 September 09 - Pupa losing old skin
losing old skin 7:03 P.M. 28 September 09 losing old skin 7:03 P.M. 28 September 09

Pupa free of old skin
pupa free of old skin

Pupa Development - Female #2

Pupa #2 - New Female Pupa on 7 September 2009
pupa on 7 September 09 - dorsal view 7 September 2009, lateral

Pupa #2 on 14 September, photo on right shows dark eye
14 September 2009, dorsal view showing dark eye 14 September 2009, lateral view showing deveolpment of eye

Pupa #2 -Female  at 8:50 P.M. 15 September 2009
shows darkened pupa

wing case and body has darkened wing case and body has darkened

Pupa #2 - Female at 6:29 A.M. left, 6:31 right, 16 September 2009
view  with translucent look that indicates
 the pupa shell is separating from the butterfly.
Butterfly emerged about 2 1/2 hours later.
pupa 6:29 A.M. 16 september Pupa becoming translucent

Pupa Development - Male #1
Left side - 2:52 P.M., 17 September, about 1 hour 15 minutes before the butterfly emerged
Right side - 10:27 A.M., 17 September, about 1 hour 15 minutes before the butterfly emerged
1 1/4 hours before adult emerged male pupa about 1 1/4 hours before emerging

On 3 August 2008 a female was located on Murdock Mountain, Uinta Mountains,  Summit County, Utah. GPS North, West West
Elevation 10, 298 feet.

Jack Harry, Les Davis and I  followed the rustica around the mountain to determine the plant she was using to lay her eggs. We finally watched her oviposit on a tiny primrose, Androsace septentrionalis.

On 9 August 2008, this one egg hatched and was set on  a leaf of Shooting Star Dodecatheon alpinum.  During the night this larva went to the base of the plant and due to the curve of the stem, was able to get into water and died.

On 1 August 2009 two females were collected  at Murdock Mountain, Uinta Mountains, Summit County, Utah.

Females  laid eggs 2nd-5th of August on the chiffon material placed under the  top of a screened cage.  The cage used held a potted Shooting Star, Dodecatheon alpinum plant and a container with a cotton ball soaked in honey water made with a ratio of 1 part honey to 10 parts water as a nectar source for the butterflies.  The screen cage was placed outside in the sun for periods of 30 to 45 minutes then brought into the house.  Each time they were brought inside they began spinning in circles, then laid eggs on the chiffon cover.   The eggs hatched on the 9th and 10th of August.   They were kept in light 24x7 on cuttings of Dodecatheon alpinum, sometimes in a bouquets and sometimes in a 1 1/2 ounce plastic solo cup with lid on and a damp piece of brown paper toweling on the floorof the cup.   After feeding for 31 days, the first larva walked off the plant and refused to eat as it was ready to pupate.  They preferred pupating between two layers of brown recycled paper toweling that was in the bottom of their container.

Some eggs were sent to  John Emmel who reared them using Androsace sempervivoides.  All those larvae hibernated as second instars.

A photo of the egg oviposited on an Androsace septentrionalis up Murdock Mountain, 3 August 2008.

Photos of  larvae from first instars  to pupae

Photos of Female Pupa #2 developing
Photos of Male Pupa  #1 1 1/4 hours before the adult male eclosed

Androsace sempervivoides, Pygmyflower Rock Jasmine-Androsace septentrionalis, Shooting Star- Dodecatheon alpinum
For available photos of host plants , click on
Androsace sempervivoides    
Androsace septentrionalis     
Dodecatheon alpinum

For photos of the habitat,  click on
Murdock Mountain

Ova:  5 to 7 days
Larvae:  extremely variable -the first one fed for 27 days and the last one fed 51 days. 
Most commonly first instar (6 days), second instar (6 days), third instar ( 5 days), fourth instar (9 days)
John Emmel brood hibernated as 2nd instar.
Pupae: 9 to 10 days
Adults:  unknown

One flight each year 
per  James A. Scott "The Butterflies of North America".  These females were found on the wing the first of August in 2008 and 2009.

Overwinter as half grown larva or pupa per  James A. Scott "The Butterflies of North America"

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