Nicky Davis, Les Davis and Jack Harry
located female 28 June 2012,
5.5miles SE of Orem, 1 mile East North East of Squaw Mountain, Utah
Female was nectaring on yellow and white flowers in the area
N. 40.16.559, W 111.36.025
HOST PLANT and HABITAT:
Per Jack Harry larvae eat the buds and flowers of Cercocarpus
In "Butterflies of North America" Scott shows the host to be leaves
of Cercocarpus montanus.
In "Life Histories of Cascadia Butterflies" David G. James and David
Nunnallee lists Purshia tridentata
as the host plant and report that the young larvae fed only on buds but
switched to leaves when they were half grown.
#2 - 12 May 2013
dorsal - also shows marking on neck
OVA - Two
oviposited 114 ova over six days. They over wintered as ova.
LARVAE (ALSO CALLED INSTARS AS IN FIRST, SECOND, THIRD FOURTH OR FIFTH
INSTAR) - Some ova were removed from hibernation on the 18th of April
and some on the 22nd of April 2013. Eggs were kept in a cello cup
and misted once a day until they emerged. The cello cups (tiny
plastic containers) were
kept about 14 inches underneath a "Grow Light" for 15 hours
a day and then in the dark for the night. Since they have
already gone through their hibernation period, the light probably
makes little difference.
At 8:30 A.M.
of the 26th of April
the first ovum emerged from the ones
taken out on the 22nd of April. After it ate the remaining
contents of the egg shell it was placed on a bud of a Purshia tridentata flower. It was 1.5 mm
long. At 12:30 another ovum emerged and this one was placed on a
bud of a Cercocarpus ledifolius flower.
were placed on buds using
a wet #1, 7050 Script Loew-Cornell brush which is good because it
doesn't injure the tiny larvae. Eight larvae total emerged and some
were placed on Cercocarpus
ledifolius and some on Purshia
tridentata. They started feeding on the outside of the buds and
ate through to the center. By the time they were third and
instars they were feeding on flower petals. None of them ever
fed on leaves.
Some fed on Cercocarpus
some on Purshia tridentata.
#3 larva on ledifolius was
seen and photographed molting to second instar 4:17 P.M. 1 May
2013. In the photos you can see it's old head case and skin. #2
second instar on ledifolius measured
3 mm 4:30 P.M. 1 May 2013. They
both were still a pink/orange color at five days old.
molted to third instar 5 May 2013 on host
mm long on 6 May 2013 and a soft green color.
#3 set to molt 6 May 2013
On 6 May I noticed one of the larvae on the Purshia tridentata was eating on a
flower petal rather than staying on a bud which is good since the tridentata and ledifolius
buds had flowered by then.
#2 molted to 4th instar 6:50 A.M. 10 May 2013 on host plant ledifolius.
#1 molted to 4th instar before 7:00 A.M. 10 May 2013 on host
plant tridentata noted
by exuvia left on plant.
#2 - 12 May 2013
#2 - 12 May
2013 close-up of head
Larvae #4 that emerged on 26th of April and #6 that hatched on
27th of April and fed on tridentata
walked off the plant 14 May 2013. They were put
back on but walked off again and were then put in separate small cello
cups on a round of brown paper towel and a a tented round over the
top. They both pupated before 8 A.M. 17 May 2013. After
they pupate I mist them with water daily.
#2 Feeding on ledifolius walked off plant 16 May and was pre-pupa 17
May 2013. This one
pupated on 20 May 2013.
The others walked off by the 18th and pupated on 21 May 2013.
Pupa #4 and #6 showed pinkish eyes on 24 May 2013 and dark eyes
indicating development on the morning of 25 May 2013..
Pupa #4 and #6 showed black eyes 25 May 2013
Pupa #4 and #6 showed dark wing case with orange center on 29 May 2013
Fed from 18 to 21 days before walking off the plant then 3 more days as
prepupa for a total of 21 to 24 days from emerging from ova
13 days after pupating #4 and #6 emerged (30 May 2013). Both were
14 days after pupating #2, a female, emerged (3 June 3013).